Persian Wars to the End of Sparta's Independence
|669 BC||Argos defeats Sparta at Battle of Hysiai|
|660-659||2nd Messenian War|
|659||Messenian resistance ends with capture of fortress at Eira
Spartans take Arcadian city of Phigaleia
|655||Pheidon of Argos dies|
|600||Renewed war between Sparta and Argos|
|499 BC||Aristogoras' Ionian rebellion against Persians|
|498||Athens sends 20 ships to Miletos|
|497||Athenians attack Sardis.|
|495||Persians capture Miletus.|
|494||Miletos destroyed, Spartans under Cleomenes smash Argives at Sepiea.
Battle of Lade - defeat of the Ionian Revolt against Persia
trial of Miltiades
Piraeus becomes Athens' main harbour
|492||Persian envoys demand "earth and water" from Greeks|
Delphic Oracle to declare Demaratos a bastard
Demaratos deposed, flees to Persia
Aegina "medizes" (goes over to the Persian side)
Cleomenes takes hostages at Aegina
Cleomenes sacrilege becomes known , is deposed and flees to Arcadia where he tries to unite Arcadians against Sparta
Leotychides & Leonidas, kings of Sparta, make an alliance with Athens and Corinth
Darius sails from Smyrna (modern Izmir, Turkey) across the Aegean, stopping at Delos
|490||Persians fleet sacks
Some evidence of Messenian helot revolt
Battle of Marathon Athens under Miltiades defeat the punitive Persian expedition of Darius I of Persia and Artaphernes
|489||Expedition of Miltiades to Paros. Capture and death of Cleomenes.|
|488||Helot revolt over?|
|486||Egypt revolts from Persia|
|485||death of Darius the Great, accession of Xerxes (assassinated 464)|
|484||Egypt revolts overcome Xerxes resoves to invade Greece|
|481||"Themistocles Decree" to evacuate Athens
all exiles and those ostracized recalled
Congress at Corinth appoints Sparta as leader of resistance
|480||Xerxes musters the army at Sigaeum, crosses the Hellespont, digs a
canal through the Athos peninsula.
Battle of Thermopylae Persians under Xerxes defeat Greeks under King Leonidas who fight to the last man (except Thebans)
Battle of Artemisium Persian fleet fights an inconclusive battle with the Greek allied fleet.
Athenians evacuate the city and move to Troizen; Persians capture the city and burn it.
Battle of Salamis Greek fleet under Themistocles and Eurybiades of Sparta defeat Persian fleet in Bay of Eleusis
Xerxes, defeated, sails across to Smyrna with his navy; his army under Mardonius stays.
|479||Battle of Plataea End of the Persian invasion of Greece, Mardonius
routed by Pausanias, the Spartan commander of the Greek army Battle of
Mycale Greeks under Leotychidas, King of Sparta, sailed to Asia Minor to
attack beached Persian fleet, then destroyed trapped Persian army of 60,000.
Congress and oath of Plataea: prosecution of the war against Persia under the "Delian Confederacy".
Athens rebuilds her walls.
Spartan admiral Pausanias heads the Delian Confederacy for a couple of months; then Athens takes over.
|478||Delian League founded.|
|475||Athenians attack pirate island of Skyros, inhabitants sold into slavery|
|474||City of Carystus in
Euboea forced to join Delian League
Eleans create single city-state
|470||Battle of Tegea Spartans defeat Tegeans and Argives|
|469||Naxos revolts from Athenian League, is defeated, population is enslaved and gets a clerarchy|
|467||Delian League defeats Persia at battle of Eurymedon River.|
|465||Battle of Dipaia Spartans defeat
Arcadians (not Mantineans)|
Mantinea allowed to unify villages into a walled town
Argos recovers Argolid inc Mycenae and Tiryns both destroyed and people enslaved
Revolt of isle of Thasos against Delian League.
Cimon defeates Thassians at sea and beseiges city
Thasos appeals to Sparta
Athens sends a colony of 10,000 to the Nine Ways (Amphipolis) on the Strymon river next to Mt Pangaion (full of silver).
|464||earthquake at Sparta, revolt of the Helots to Messene. |
Kimon of Athens takes an army to Sparta to help the Spartans capture the Helots; the Spartans dismiss the Athenians, Kimon is recalled
Xerxes assassinated, succeeded by Artaxerxes: revolt in Egypt; Athens sends ships to help
|463||Surrender of Thasos.|
|461||Battle at the Isthmos Spartans defeat Messenians|
Sparta takes Messene; Athens settles the Messenian survivors at Naupaktos driving out Ozolian Locrians
Athens allies with Megara and helps build her her Long Walls to Nisaea and Minoa
|459||Artaxerxes bribes Sparta to invade Athens
First Peloponnesian War begins.
|458||Athens completes her own Long Walls to Piraeus
Athenians defeat Aeginetans and Corinthian and Epidauran allies in naval battle in Saronic Gulf
Aegina beseiged by Athenians
Phocians to surrender territory taken from Doris
Battle of Tanagra Spartans and allies defeat Athenians and Argives.
Aegina capitulates lose navy and fortifications
Battle of Oenophyta The Athenians defeat the Thebans and take control of Boeotia
|456||Athenian fleet under
Tolmides attacks Methone and Gythium
Pericles failes to capture Oeniadae in Acarnania
|454||Athens's ships in Egypt are defeated (battle of the White Tower), and transfers the treasury of the Delian League to Athens Miletos revolts.|
|452||Miletos is recovered
Thirty Years' peace between Argos and Lacedaemon.
Five year's truce between Athenians and Peloponnesians.
|450||Battle of Salamis Athenians under Cimon defeat the Persian fleet.
Athens establishes pay for jury duty but restricts citizenship to those born of parents who are both Athenians.
Tribute from the Delian federal allies converted solely to cash (no ships).
Carthaginians driven out of west Sicily
|449||Perikles elected polemarch (every year [except 443] until his death in
Peace of Kallias with Persia (war over):
Samos revolts & forms an oligarchy.
1st Sacred War at Delphi.
|447||Parthenon begun (442 dedicated, 438 all sculpture in place)|
|446||Battle of Coronea The Athenians are driven from Boeotia
Defection of Phocis and Locris from Delian League
Megara & Euboea revolt (Euboea is recaptured).
Spartans and allies under Pleistoanax ravage Attica.
Psammetichus of Egypt sends grain, revision of Athenian citizenship to 21,000 citizens.
Athens allies with Rhegium & Leontinoi in Sicily
|443||Perikles NOT elected polemarch
disenfranchised Athenians sent as colonists to Thurii in south Italy (Herodotus amongst them).
Athenian empire reorganized into 5 districts.
|442||Perikles re-elected polemarch (and every year until his death in 429)|
|440||Samos & Byzantion revolt from Athens|
|438||Amphipolis founded by
1st Megarian decree (no trading with Megara)
|436||Civil strife in
Corcyran colony of Epidamnus
Corcyrans blockade city, Corinthians aid Epidamnus
|435||Sea victory of Corcyra over Corinth off Actia.|
|433||contrary to the 30 Years Peace, Athens admits Corcyra into the
alliance and demands Potidaea, a tributary ally of Athens but a Corinthian
colony, to dismantle her walls and increase tribute from 6 to 15 talents.
2nd Megarian decree (Megara is not allowed to trade in any market of the Athenian allies)
Naval Battle of Sybota Athenians and Corcyreans fight Corinthians, both claim victory
|432||Perdiccas II of
Macedonia enters into relations with Corinth and Sparta
Athenians capture Therma and lay siege to Pydna
Battle of Potidaea Athens defeats Corinthians
Siege of Potidea
|431||Corinth gets Sparta to declare war on Athens: Archidamnian War begins|
Peloponnesian army ravages Attica.
|429||Plague in Athens: Perikles dies; Cleon becomes the most influential
member of the ekklesia|
Battle of Chalcis Chalcidians and their allies defeat Athens
Battle of Naupactus Phormio defeats the Peloponnesian fleet.
|428||property tax in Athens|
Peloponnesian army ravages Attica.
Battle of Mytilene Athens puts down Mytilenian revolt
Sparta besieges and destroys Plataea
|426||Athens doubles tribute of the subject allies. |
Battle of Tanagra Athenians under Nicias are defeated in an invasion of Boeotia
Battle of Olpae Athenians under Demosthenes defeat the Ambraciots and Peloponnesian forces in Aetolia
Sparta founds colony in Heraclea-Trachinia with 10,000 Laconian settlers
|425||Eurymedon & Sophokles (the admiral) set sail for Sicily with Demosthenes (the admiral), who stops off at Pylos, fortifies it, and manages to isolate 420 Lacedaemonians on the island of Sphacteria; Sparta sues for a truce; Cleon refuses, and arrives at Pylos. The island of Sphacteria is burnt, the Lacedaemonians are exposed and 292 are captured including 120 Spartaites.|
|424||Brasidas foils surprise attack on Megara|
|423||One year's truce.|
Thebans pull down walls of Thespiae
Inconclusive battle fought between Tegeans and Mantineans at Laodocium
|422||Battle of Amphipolis. The Spartans under Brasidas defeat the Athenians under Cleon. Both generals are killed.|
|421||Peace of Nikias (Athens & Sparta ally)|
|419||Alliance between Athens and Argos.
Thebans occupy Heraclea-Trachinia
|418||Battle of Mantinea The Spartans under King Agis II defeat the Argives,
Mantineans, and Athenians.|
Argos allies with Sparta.
|416||Melos reduced and captured by Athenians after siege. Adult males massacred and non-combatants enslaved|
|415||Mutilation of the Herms; Sicilian expedition; recall of Alcibiades and his flight to Sparta (eventually he makes his way to Samos)|
|413||Sparta and allied
forces invades Attica and fortifies Deceleia|
Mykalessos in Boeotia seized by Thracians under Athenian command
Reinforcements sent to Sicily under Demosthenes, whose night attack is repulsed with heavy loss.
Naval action in harbour and total defeat of Athenian fleet.
Retreat of Athenian army followed by débâcle.
|412||"democratic" revolution at Samos; general revolt of the Athenian
Sparta recognises Persian claim to Ionia, in return for funds to finance her fleet.
Battle of Syme Spartans defeat Athenian fleet
|411||Revolt of Rhodes. |
Revolt of Abydus and Lampsacus.
Evagoras becomes king of Salamis.
Revolution in Samos crushed with help of Alkibiades
Counter-revolution in Athens by moderate conservatives under Theramenes, in time to prevent capitulation to Sparta.
The Four Hundred oligarchs overthrown; leaders in exile.
Euboea captured by Spartans with crippling loss of food-producing land and private estates.
The restored democracy recalls Alcibiades, who elects to remain in Samos in command of the fleet.
Battle of Cynossema The Athenians under Alcibiades defeat the Spartan fleet.
|410||Battle of Cyzicus The Athenian fleet, under the leadership of Alcibiades,
destroys the Spartan fleet.|
Athens recovers Thasos.
|409||Athens loses Pylos & Nisaia (Megara). In Sicily, Carthaginians destroy Selinus & Himera|
|408||Athens recovers Byzantion. Athens recovers Chalcedon.|
|407||Lysander appointed Navarch in command of Spartan fleet.|
|406||Antiochos defeated by Lysander in sea battle of Notium |
Battle of Arginusae Athenian victory over Peloponnesians.
Carthaginians destroy Acragas
Offer of peace by Spartans. The demagogue Kleophon moves rejection.
|405||Lysander, re-appointed as Navarch|
last Athenian fleet defeated at Aegospotami. by Lysander
Dionysus tyrant of Syracuse makes peace with Carthage.
installation of decharchies blockade of Athens begins Conon flees to Cyprus
|404||Surrender of Athens to Lysander |
Long wall and Piraeus fortifications demolished.
Thirty Tyrants established in Athens by Lysander supported by Spartan garrison.
Thorax harmost of Samos executed for theft of state funds
Thrasybulos and the Seventy seize Phyle.
|403|| Judicial murder of Eleusians. Expedition of the Thirty against
Capture of Piraeus and Battle of Munychia. Kritias killed. Thirty flee to Eleusis
Lysander plunders territory of Pharnabazus
Lysander appointed harmost of Athens
King Pausanias of Sparta intervenes. Proclaims amnesty and withdraws garrison.
Trial and acquittal of Pausanius
Clearchos harmost of Byzantion recalled and exiled for larceny
Thebes seizes Oropus
Sparta agrees to aid Cyrus in revolt against Artaxerxes
Agis begins campaign against Elis
|401||Cyrus killed in war of succession against Artaxerxes at Cunaxa.
His mercenary Greek army after death of Generals led back to Greece by Xenophon,
Eleusis reincorporated in Athenian state
Eleans sue for peace lose Cyllene and fortifications get harmost and
garrison at Epitalion|
Death of King Agis. His son barred from the succession on suspicion of Alkibiades' paternity in favour of Agesilaus.
Spartan control re-imposed in Heraclea-Trachinia
Expulsion of Messenians from Naupactos and Kephallania
Spartan intervention in Thessaly, installs garrison in Pharsalos at their request as defence against Macedonia
Sparta responds to Asiatic Greeks appeal and declares war on Artaxerxes
Conspiracy of Cinadon at Sparta|
Thibron begins Spartan campaigning Asia Minor with 1000 neodamodeis and 4000 Peloponnesian troops
remnants of Ten Thousand incorporated into Thibrons army
Thibron fails to take Larissa, replaced by Derkylidas
Xenophon in exile.
Sparta settles colonists in Chersonese (Cinadon malcontents?)
|398||Agesilaus (king of Sparta) engineers truce between Sparta &
first Punic war of Dionysios
Dionysios permitted to recruit mercenaries in Laconia (Cinadon malcontents?)
|397||Sparta-Persia truce collapses|
Conon appointed commander of Persian fleet in Cyprus
Athenian embassy to Artaxerxes
Carthage besieges Syracuse
Sparta send relief squadron to Syracuse
|396||Boeotians stop Agesilaus
sacrificing at Aulis|
Agesilaus assumes command of the Spartan forces in Asia
Revolt of Rhodes from Sparta
Lysander returns to Sparta
Pharnabazus sends funds to anti-Spartan alliance : Athens Argos Thebes and Corinth
|395||Agesilaus campaigns against Tissaphernes|
Thebes initiates Corinthian war by attacking Phocians on behalf of Locrians
Agesilaus wins battle near Sardis over Tissaphernes
Tissaphernes executed replaced by Tiribazus
Lysander secures defection of Orchomenus from Boeotian confederacy
Agesilaus appoints Peisandros (brother-in-law) navarch
Agesilaus campaigns against Pharnabazus in Phrygia and Paphlagonia
Alliance of Boeotia and Athens
Lysander attacks Boeotia from Heraclea while Pausanius invades from south
Battle of Haliartus, death of Lysander
Pausanius withdraws in return for Lysanders body
exile of Pausanias succeeded by Agesipolis (minor)
Alliance between Boetia Athens Corinth Argos Locris Euboians Akarnanians Chalkidians and most of Thessaly
Spartans expelled from Heraclea-Trachina and Pharsalus
Athens starts to rebuild Peiraieus walls
Agesilaus defeats Thessalians in cavalry battle at Narthakion
Battle of Nemea Sparta defeats allies.
Battle of Cnidus Spartan naval defeat. Peisandros killed
Asiatic Greek cities relieved of harmosts and garrisons
Battle of Coronea, Agesilaus defeats allies.
Agesilaus II brings back 1000 talents from from his Asian expedition
Polemarch Gylis killed in Locris
Corinth builds Long Walls to its harbour at Lechaion
|393||Long walls of Athens rebuilt with Persian money |
Pharnabazus and Conon capture and garrison Kythera
Athens reoccupies Delos Lemnos Imbros and Skyros
Iphicrates in Corinth with force of mercenary peltasts
Amnytas ousted from Macedonia by Illyrians
Olynthians gain control of Pella
|392||Pro-spartan group massacred in Corinth, Union of Corinth and Argos,
Argive garrison in acro-corinth|
Dionysios makes peace with Carthage
Spartans win battle of Long Walls of Corinth
Agesilaus captures Corinthian port of Lechaion and garrisons it
Antalcidas renews Spartan-Persian accord, Sparta agrees to cede Asia cities and give up its imperial ambitions for Persian backing with Tiribazus
Conon arrested and executed in Sardis by Tiribazus
Artaxerxes repudiates agreement, Tiribarzus replaced by Strouthas (pro-Athenian)
|391||Agesilaus ravages Argos|
Peace conference at Sparta fails, terms rejected by all but Boeotia
Spartan capture Lechaion
Knidos and Samos rejoin Spartans
War renewed against Persians
Rhodians appeal to Sparta, fleet sent under Ekdikos
|390||Iphicrates destroys Spartan Mora near Lechaion|
Phlius asks for Spartan garrison
Spartans harass Attica and Athenian shipping from Aegina
Athens establishes a war tax.
Evagoras of Salamis (Cyprus) revolts from Persia
|389||Iphicrates replaced by Chabrias|
Expedition of Agesilaus to Acarnania in support of Achaeans
Thrasybulus revives Athens maritime league by winning Byzantion Chalcedon Chersone Thasos and Samothrace as allies
Iphicrates blockades Abydos
Oligarchic counter revolution at Rhodes succeeds
Athens levies a 5% tax on commerce
|388||Agesipolis after consulting oracle at Delphi invades Argolid |
Acarnanians submit, join Peloponnesian League
Antalkidas mission to Susa
Athens gives support to Evagoras of Cyprus alienating Persia
Strouthas replaced by Tiribazus
Pharnabazus (anti-spartan) replaced by Ariobarzanes (pro-Spartan)
Thrasybulus murdered by inhabitants of Aspendus
|387||Teleutias attacks Peiraieus from Aegina distrupts grain route from Egypt|
Chabrias raids Aegina stopping Spartan interference of shipping
Antalkidas gains control of Hellespont cutting of Athens wheat supply from Black Sea
Peace conference at Sardis
|386||Sparta compels Argos Corinth Thebes to submit to peace on
Peace of Antalkidas Union of Corinth and Argos dissolved, Boeotian confedracy dissolved, Athens retains Lemnos Imbros and Skyros only, Artaxerxes receives all Greek cities in Asia and islands of Clazomenae and Cyprus
|385||Archidamus besieges Mantinea, Mantineans forced to split into 5 villages
and destroy walls|
Spartan intervention in Thasos
|384||Lysias, orator at Athens, delivers his speech at Olympia urging all to
stop fighting and unite against Persia|
Phliasian exiles appeal to Sparta, requests restoration
Athens allies with Chios
|383||Negotiations between Athens Thebes and Olynthos|
Acanthus and Apollonia decline to join Olynthian League fearing coercion they complain to Sparta
Amnytas III of Macedonia asks for Spartan aid against Olynthos to recover coastal towns taken by Olynthos
Peloponnesian League prepares campaign against Olynthos and Chalkidian League
|382||advance force of 2000 neodamodeis under Eudamidas sent to Olynthos|
Phoedibas his brother, appointed to command forces against Olynthos seizes citadel of Thebes.
Phoedibas action defended by Agesilaus at trial
change in terms of Peloponnesian League members may contribute money instead of troops
refoundation of Plataea
Sparta regains Heraclea-Trachinia
Eudamidas killed in battle replaced by Teleutias Half-brother to Agesilaus
|381||Death of Teleutias at Olynthus. |
Agesipolis succeeds to command at Olynthos
Agesipolis defeats Olynthians
Phliasians refuse to take back exiles
Agesilaus beseiges Phleius
|380||Agesipolis dies of sickness at Olynthos succeeded by Polybiadas as
commander and Cleombrotus as king|
Evagoras comes to terms with Artaxerxes
Jason becomes despot of Pherae
|379||Agesilaus reduces Phleious after 20 month
siege imposes oligarchy|
Olynthos comes to terms from starvation, Chalkidian cities incorporated in Peloponnesian League individually
Amnytas recovers Macedonia
Pelopidas & Epaminondas recapture Thebes and install a democracy.
2 of 3 officers in command of garrison executed and the 3rd exiled
|378||Cleombrotus invades Boeotia but makes no effort to retake Thebes|
Thebans ask to join Peloponnesian League but are refused
Spartan diplomatic attempts to secure Athenian neutrality wrecked when Sphodrias harmost at Thespiae attempts to take Peiraieus
Iphicrates sent to serve with Persians against Egypt
Thebes becomes democracy re-founds Boeotian confederation
Alliance of Athens and Thebes.
Second Athenian Confederacy.
Property tax in Athens.
Peace of Syracuse with Carthage.
Sphodrias acquitted in trial
Agesilaus ravages Theban land
Athenians resume plans to form Maritime League
Rhodes Chios Byzantion Thebes join Athens (under Callistrates) & Thebes form the 2nd Athenian League
|377||Agesilaus leads second expedition against Thebes|
Agesilaus sustains leg injury at Megara
Euboians except Histiaia and Oreus under Spartan harmost and Mytilene and Methymna join 2nd Athenian League
|376||Abortive expedition of Cleombrotus against Thebes focus of strategy
transfers to sea|
Battle of Naxos Chabrias smashes Peloponnesian fleet.
Cyclades enrols in Athenian league
|375||Chabrias secures most of Chalkidike and Thrace for Athenian alliance|
Battle of Tegyra Pelopidas and Sacred Band defeat Sparta's Orchomenos garrison of 2 mora
Timotheos secures Cephallania and Corcyra for Athenian alliance
Battle of Alyzeia Timotheos defeats Peloponnesian fleet
Thebes recovers all Boeotia except Orchomenos Thespiai and Plataea
Boeotians invade Phocis, Cleombrotus comes to their aid
Sparta declines to aid Polydamos of Pharsalus against Jason of Pherae
Jason becomes Tagos of all Thessaly
Athens hampered by lack of funds and estrangement with Thebes seeks peace
First renewal of Kings Peace at Sparta
|374||renewal of war over Zakynthian exiles restored by Athens|
|373||Expedition of Timotheos to Thessaly Macedonia and Thrace|
Persian attack on Egypt repulsed
Spartan expedition under Mnasippos to Corcyra
Athens takes back Oropus
Iphicrates intercepts squadron sent by Dionysios to help Sparta in Corcyra
Thebes destroys Plataea and fortifications of Thespiae
Mnasippos defeated and killed at Corcyra
Earthquakes in Greece. Temple at Delphi destroyed.
|372||Thebes presides over congress of 2nd Athenian League|
Iphicrates threatens Messenia
Antalkidas to Artaxerxes to treat for renewal of peace
|371||2nd renewal of Kings Peace Peace
of Callias. Boeotians excluded from peace over Thebans insistance they
talk for all Boeotia|
Spartans recall harmosts
Cleombrotus campaigns in Boeotia with army of Peloponnesian League inc 4 Mora
Cleombrotus defeated and killed at Leuctra. Agesipolis II succeeds
Jason of Pherae ally of Thebes destroys fortifications of Heraklea-Trachnina
Peace conference at Athens Elis excluded
3rd renewal of Kings Peace
Athens sends embassy to Susa
Sparta fined by the Theban dominated Amphictionic Council for seizing Cadmeia
|370||Stasis at Argos Tegea Phlious Phigaleia Corinth and Sicyon|
Re-synoecism of Mantinea walls rebuilt with Eleian financial aid
anti-spartan coup at Tegea
formation of Arcadian League except Orchomenos and Heraia
Triphylians declare themselves Arcadian
Assasination of Jason of Pherae
Thebes recovers Orchomenos and dispossesses Thespians
Agesilaus campaigns in Arcadia
Athens rejects appeal of Arcadians Eleans and Argives
Boeotians accept appeal
First Boeotian invasion of Peloponnesus with allies Phocis Euboea Locris Acarnanians Heracleans and Malians
Defection of North Laconian Perioikoi : Caryae Belminatis Thyrea?
Selassia lost to Arcadians
Defence of Sparta by Agesilaos enlistment of helots 6000? and suppression of conspiracies
foundation of new city of Messene on site of Ithome
liberation of Messenian helots
|369||Iphicrates blocks isthmus but fails to prevent Epaminondas from
returning to Boeotia|
Alexander succeeds at Pherae
First expedition of Pelopidas to Thessaly reorganizes Thessalian League alliance between Thebes and Alexander II of Macedon
Second Boeotian invasion. Pellene and Sicyon detached from Spartan alliance
Foundation of Megalopolis begun
Euphron seizes Sicyon as tyrant
Dionysios sends 20 warships and 2000 Gaulish and Iberian mercenaries to Sparta
Arcadians take Pellana using 5000 troops inc Eparitoi (a body of permanent hoplites paid out of federal treasury)
|368||alliance between Athens and Alexander of Pherae|
Iphicrates appointed to recover Amphipolis
Dionysios sends a second force of mercenaries to Sparta under Cissidas
Pelopidas captured by Alexander of Pherae
Peace conference fails
Ariobarzanes sends a force of 2000 mercenaries to aid Sparta
Archidamos destroys Caryae ravages Parrhasia wins 'Tearless Battle' against Arcadians Messenians and Argives
Foundation of Megalopolis completed
|367||Pelopidas rescued by Epaminondas in Thessaly|
peace conference at Susa Artaxerxes sides with Thebans Messene and Amphipolis to remain autonomous Athens to lay up fleet, Elis to receive Triphylia
Congress at Thebes fails, Arcadian League ignored
Lycomodes leads Arcadian resistance
Revolt of Ariobarzanes
Sparta refuses to accept peace
Third Boeotian invasion. Achaea won over to Boeotian alliance
Alliance of Athens and Arcadia.
Agesilaus sails with Timotheus to Hellespont to aid Ariobarzanes
death of Lycomodes
Athens loses Oropos to Thebes
Corinth rejects Athenian garrison seeks peace with Thebes
|365||Agesilaus relieves Assos from seige|
End of Peloponnesian League
Corinth, Phlius and Epidauros and other Spartan allies make separate peace with Thebes
Artaxerxes recognizes Athens right to Amphipolis
Dionysios II sends a force of 12 triremes and Celtic & Iberian mercenaries to Sparta
Sellasia and Pellana retaken by Sparta
Korphysion and Kyparissia taken by Messenians
War between Arcadia and Elis.
Timotheus captures Samos from Persians
Split within Arcadian League over use of religious funds
Perdiccas III King of Macedonia
|364||Archidamos takes Kromnos from Arcadians puts in garrison of 3 lochoi|
Archidamos defeated by Arcadians Thebans Argives and Messenians at Kromnos 100 of garrison captured
Naval expedition of Epaminondas to Byzantion
Byzantion Naxos and Keos defect from Athens to Thebes
Third Thessalian expedition of Pelopidas.
Battle of Cynoscephalae Pelopidas defeated and killed by Thessalians
Thebes destroys Orchomenos and Coronea
|363||Arcadian League splits Tegea and Megalopolis support Thebes, Mantinea
supports Sparta |
Timotheus recovers Byzantion
Agesilaus returns from service for Ariobarzanes
|362||Theban alliance of Boeotia Euboea Thessaly Malins Locrians Ainians
Athens recovers Keos
Agesilaus and Archidamus successfully defend Sparta against Epaminondas
Inconclusive Battle of Mantinea Epaminondas killed.
Common Peace sworn by all except Sparta
Alliance of Athens Achaea Phlius and Mantinea
|361||Athens recaptures most of Chersonese|
|360||Agesilaus sails to Egypt to aid Tachos|
Agesilaus deserts Tachos for Nektanibis II
Agesilaus dies in Libya on his return bringing 230 talents to Sparta succeeded by his son Archidamos
Timotheus fails to capture Amphipolis
Artaxerxes re-establishes authority in Asia Minor
|359||The minor Amyntas IV succeeds his father Perdiccas as king of Macedonia.
His uncle Philip II is appointed as his regent, but eventually establishes himself as king
|358||Philip defeats Paeonians and Illyrians|
|357||Philip captures Amphipolis. |
Euboea secedes from Thebes
Revolt of Chios, Cos, and Rhodes from Athens.
2nd Sacred War (the "Social" war).
In Athens Euboulos controls the Theoric Fund.
Mausolaus of Caria sponsors the 3rd Ionian revolt (against Athens), and the 2nd Athenian Confederacy breaks up
|356||Philips' Illyrian victory. Battle of Embata.|
Philip captures Pydna and Potidaea.
Birth of Alexander.
Amphictonic Council fines Phocis for sacrilege
Start of 2nd Sacred War
Archidamos send mercenaries and 15 talents to aid Phocians
Philomemos of Phocis seizes Delphi - other members of the Great Amphictyonic League declare war against Phocis
|355||Philomelus invades Opuntian Locris|
|354||Philip II took Methone
Thessalian League appealed to Philip II for help against the tyrants of Pherae.
Philomelus defeated by Boeotians at Neon and killed
Onomarchus appointed to replace Philomelus
Chios declares independence from Athens.
Battle of Embata, which the Athenian navy lost to Chios.
death of Xenophon
Mausolaus of Caria dies (the Mausoleum at Halikarnessos is built, finished 350)
Onomarchus takes Orchomenus in Boeotia
Lycophron of Pherae allies with Phocis
Thessalian League appeal to Philip
Phocians under Phayllus defeated by Philip
|353||Onomarchus defeats Philip twice in Thessaly|
|352||Onomarchos invades Boeotia, defeating a Boeotian army and seizing
Battle of Crocus Fields Philip II of Macedon defeats the Phocians . Onomarchus killed
Philip captures Pherae
Athens, Sparta and Achaeans sends force to defend Thermopylae
Philip enters Greece as the ally of Thebes and Thessaly.
War between Sparta & Megalopolis, Phocis lends Sparta 2000 mercenaries
Abdera passes to Macedonia.
|351||Demosthenes' First Philippic|
Artaxerxes III of Persia invades, but fails to conquer Egypt
Thebans receive 300 talents from Artaxerxes
|350||Aristotle founds the Lyceum in Athens|
|349||Alliance of Athens with Olynthus. Demosthenes' Olynthiacs.|
The city of Eretria on the island of Euboea successfully rebels against the rule of Athens
Philip captures and destroys Olynthus enslaving the inhabitants
|347||Athenian embassy to Philip. |
Peace of Philocrates. Philip becomes archon (Tagus) of Thessaly.
Philip and his allies in the Amphictyonic Council imposed a fine of 10,000 talents on Phokis
End of 2nd Sacred War
|346||Athens revises its citizenship requirement|
|344||Demosthenes' Second Philippic. |
Dionysius, Tyrant of Syracuse goes into exile after an invasion by Timoleon of Corinth.
|343||Philocrates flees, Aeschines acquitted of treason|
Egypt is invaded successfully by Atraxerxes III.
Alliance of Megara and Athens.
Aristotle tutors Alexander.
|341||Philip conquers Thrace. |
Demosthenes' Third Philippic. The Euboic League founded.
|340||Naval reform in Athens. Sieges of Perinthus and Byzantium by Philip II.
Battle of the Crimissus: Timoleon defeats the Carthaginian invaders of Sicily
Rhodes falls to Persian forces
|339||3rd Sacred War (against Amphissa); Philip, as member of the
Amphictyony, descends to solve it. |
Lykourgos begins a new building program in Athens (Theatre of Dionysos is monumentalized, built of stone)
|338||Athens allies with Thebes|
Philip captures Amphissa and Naupaktos.
Battle of Chaeronea: Philip of Macedon defeats Athens and Thebes
Thebes deprived of their hegemony of Boeotia, Macedonian garrison in Cadmeia and Chalcis, Orchomenus, Thespiae and Plataea restored, 2000 hostages taken from Athens, Theban captives sold into slavery
Death of Isocrates.
Archidamus III of Sparta killed at the battle of Battle of Manduria fighting for Tarantines
Agis III succeeds his father Archidamus III as king of Sparta
Phillip founds League of Corinth.
Phillip ravages Laconia deprives Sparta of Denthiliatis, territory on Messenian Gulf as far as the little Pamisos river to Messenia, Belminatis, Caryae to Arcadia and East Parnon foreland to Argos
Lycurgus finance minister in Athens.
Artaxerxes III is murdered.
|337||Congress (synhedrion) of Corinth: Philip unites Greece under his command, and declares Persia to be their objective:|
|336||King Philip II of Macedon is assassinated. His son Alexander II succeeds
Darius III of Persia rises to the throne succeeding King Arses of Persia.
|335||Alexander's campaign in Thrace and Illyria. |
Aristotle teaches in Athens.
Rumours of Alexanders death spark Greek revolt led by Thebes; Alexander puts them down, destroys Thebes
|334||Alexander sets out: crosses the Hellespont; Battle of the Granicus: Alexander defeats the Persian army in Western Asia Minor, Ionia surrenders|
|333||Battle of Issus: Alexander defeats the main Persian army under King Darius III in northern Syria.|
|332||Alexander conquers Tyre after a seven-month siege.|
Alexander conquers Jerusalem.
Alexander occupies Egypt.
Agis III receives a subsidy of 30 talents from Darius for his war with Macedonia
|331||Alexander at the oracle of Zeus Ammon at Siwa (Libya); Foundation of
Agis III defeats a Macedonian mercenary force in the Peloponnese under Corrhagus
Battle of Gaugamela: Alexander the Great defeats Darius III in Mesopotamia
Darius III, king of Persia (murdered) capture of the Persian capitol at Susa
Battle of Megalopolis, Antipater, Alexander's regent in Macedon and Greece, defeats the Spartans and allies under King Agis III (died)
Battle of Pandosia, Alexander of Epirus, the uncle of Alexander the Great, is defeated and killed in Italy by the Samnites.
|330||Alexander occupies Persepolis; battle of Ecbatana:|
|329||Samarkand captured by Alexander|
|328||Alexander conquers Bactria and Sogdiana.|
|327||Alexander marries Roxanne.|
Execution of Callisthenes. Alexander prepares for Indian expedition.
Alexander takes the land from Afghanistan to the Punjab and invades Northern India, but ends his campaign after complaints from his army.
|326||Alexander crosses the Indus. |
Battle of the Hydaspes, Alexander defeats the Indian King Porus
|325||Alexander retreats through southern Iran; naval expedition of Nearchos around Arabia|
|324||Macedonian mutiny at Opis. |
Alexander visits Susa and marries Statira, daughter of Darius III of Persia.
Alexander conducts mass weddings; veterans leave for Macedonia
Alexander sends deification decree to Greece
|323||completion of Nearchos's circumnavigation of Arabia|
Alexander III dies.
Alexander son Alexander IV is declared King of Macedon and co-ruler with his uncle Philip III, Perdiccas declared regent
Perdiccas settles Bactrian mutiny executes Meleager
Athenians acquire windfall treasury from an absconding minister of Alexander, Harpalus
Greece revolts against Macedonia. Lamian War
Athenian mercenaries and Aetolians under Leosthenes occupy Thermopylae
Antipater defeated by Athenians and Aetolians and deserted by Thessalians and he retreats to Lamia where he is beseiged
|322||Leonnatus relieves the siege of Lamia, freeing Antipater,
but is killed in a cavalry skirmish|
Cleitus defeats the Athenian fleet at Amorgos.
Battle of Crannon, Antipater and Craterus defeat the Athenians and Thessalians
Change in Athenian Constitution. Franchise limited to 9,000, qualification set at 2,000 drachmas, 12,000 poor citizens sent to Thrace
Suicide of Demosthenes, Death of Aristotle, Lycurgus.
Macedonian garrison in the Piraeus.
End of Lamian war
Olympias embroils Antipater and Perdiccas in war
Antipater and Craterus withdraw from Greece and advance into Asia Minor
Ptolemy captures corpse of Alexander from Perdiccas
Antipater arranges marraige alliances with Craterus, Ptolemy and Lysimachus
governor of Cappadocia by Perdiccas|
Eumenes defeats Craterus who is killed
Perdiccas unable to force the Nile against Ptolemy, Perdiccas' army destroyed by flood
Perdiccas, regent of the empire assassinated by Antigonus, Peithon and Seleucus
|320||Eumenes is trapped and defeated by Antigonus at Orcynia
Antigonus destroys the last of Perdiccas' supporters in Pisidia
End of the First War of the Diadochi (322-320 BC)
|319||Antipater dies , Polyperchon succeeds Antipater as regent in Macedonia.|
Ptolemy seizes Syria and Phoenicia
Cassander contests Polyperchons authority
Nicanor is sent to Athens by Cassander and gains control of the fort at Munychia.
Antigonus attacks Helespontine Phrygia and Lydia expelling Clitus and Arridaeus.
|318||Ptolemy occupies Palestine.|
Antigonus Monophthalmus defeats the Imperial fleet under Clitus Polyperchon loses control of Aegean.
|317||The Athenians agree terms with Cassander, who sets up Demetrius of Phalerum
as their leader, fixed property qualification for citizenship at 1,000
Cassander accepted as regent by Macedonians campaigns on the Peloponnesus.
Polyperchon reoccupies Macedonia with help from Olympias, and captures Philip Arridaeus who is executed and Eurydice who commits suicide.
Sparta puts up first fortifications of ditch and palisade.
Olympias retreats to Pydna.
Battle of Paraetacena, inconclusive battle between Eumenes and Antigonus Monophthalmus
|316||Antigonus defeats Eumenes in Gabiene. |
Eumenes is handed over to Antigonus by his own army , puts Eumenes to death.
Cassander puts Olympias to death.
Cassander imprisons Roxane and her son Alexander at Amphipolis.
Cassander invades the Peloponnese, and wins over Argos and most of Messenia.
|315||Cassander founds the city of
Cassander invades the Peloponnese.
Agathocles attacks Messene.
Polycleitus defeats Theodotus, the admiral of Antigonus, near Aphrodisias.
King Acrotatus of Sparta becomes mercenary captain for 3 Sicilian cities
the Cyclades |
Aristodemus "liberates" Cyllene and Patrae and sacks Aegium during a raid into Achaea.
Alexander captures Dyme, but his garrison is overwhelmed by the inhabitants of the city shortly afterwards.
Cassander persuades the people of Acarnania to move into fortified cities, the largest of which is Stratus.
Acrotatus becomes unpopular at Sparta because of his opposition to an amnesty for the survivors of the battle of Megalopolis.
The inhabitants of Acragas in Sicily summon Acrotatus the Spartan to be their general against Agathocles.
Alexander is assassinated, but his widow Cratesipolis retains control of Sicyon.
Cassander invades Illyria, and captures Epidamnus.
Cassander founds colony at Antipatreia in Atintania
City of Thebes restored by Cassander.
The Aetolians besiege Agrinium, and massacre the Acarnanians after the city surrenders.
Antigonus captures Tyre.
|313||Lysimachus puts down rebellions in his kingdom, and defeats and kills
Pausanias, the general of Antigonus.|
Philip the brother of Cassander defeats and kills Aeacides, the king of Epirus; Alcetas becomes the next king of Epirus.
Antigonus gains control of the cities of Caria, and liberates Miletus from Cassander and the greater part of the Peloponnesus.
Cyrene under Ophellas becomes splits from Ptolemy
The Corcyreans force the garrisons left by Cassander to abandon Apollonia and Epidamnus.
Ptolemy captures Chalcis and Oropus
Lysimachus foils Antigonus attempt to cross the Dardanelles
|312||Lyciscus, the general of Cassander, defeats Alcetas. |
Cassander is defeated while attacking Apollonia.
Ptolemy defeats Demetrius at the battle of Gaza.
Ptolemy gains control of Phoenicia.
Seleucus defeats Nicanor
|311||Demetrius defeats Cilles, the general of Ptolemy|
Seleucus gains complete control of Babylon.
A temporary peace is formed between Ptolemy, Cassander and Lysimachus . Lysimachus and Ptolemy confirmed in existing territories, Cassander in Macedonia, Thessaly, most of central Greece and part of Peloponnesus until coming of age of Alexander IV in 305.
|310||Cassander murders Roxane and her son Alexander at Amphipolis.
Polemaeus Antigonus nephew and governor of Hellespontine Phrygia allies with Cassander takes Cyclades
Ptolemy annexes Cyprus
funds for Polyperchon to form an army to place Heracles, illegitimate son
of Alexander the Great to the throne of Macedonia,|
but later changes allegiance to Cassander and murders Heracles.
Ptolemy puts Polemaeus to death at Kos
|308||The death of Acrotatus, son of Cleomenes|
Areus a minor succeeds Cleomenes II as king of Sparta. Cleonymus is regent
|307||Demetrius expels Cassander from Piraeus, Athens restores democracy|
|306||Pyrrhus is installed as king of Epirus. |
Battle of Salamis: Demetrius Poliorcetes defeats the fleet of Menelaeus, brother of Ptolemy , Ptolemy loses all overseas possessions
Demetrius takes control of Cyprus
Seleucus conquers Bactria.
Antigonus with 88000 men invades Egypt
Demetrius is prevented from attacking Egypt by heavy storms off coast
Antigonus retreats out of Egypt after his troops start to desert bribed by Ptolemys gold and because of dwindling supplies
|305||Ptolemy takes the title of king|
Demetrius besieges Rhodes
The Athenian general Olympiodorus defeats the army of Cassander at Elateia, with help from the Aetolians.
|304||Demetrius captures the island of Salamis. |
Demetrius agrees to end the siege of Rhodes, through the mediation of the Aetolians.
Demetrius crosses to Greece and captures Chalcis.
Demetrius drives Cassander's army out of Attica and pursues it as far as Heracleia.
|303||Demetrius captures Sicyon, and moves the city to a different site. |
Cleonymus of Sparta arrives with an army to support Tarentum
Demetrius captures Corinth, and then Bura, Scyrus, Orchomenus, and other cities in the Peloponnese.
Nicodemus of Messene transfers his support from Cassander to Demetrius.
Cleonymus captures Corcyra.
Demetrius captures Argos
|302||Demetrius creates a new Hellenic League, and is appointed its leader.
Lysimachus invades Asia and captures Sigeum, Synnada, Ephesus, Colophon, and other cities.
Demetrius invades Thessaly.
|301||Antigonus is defeated and killed by Seleucus and Lysimachus at Ipsus.
Cleonymus loses control of Corcyra.
Ptolemy seizes control of Palestine and Coele Syria
Ptolemy captures Jerusalem.
|299||Demetrius seizes control of Cilicia.|
|298||Peace between Cassander and Athens.|
|297||Death of Cassander.|
|296||Demetrius captures Samaria.|
|295||Demetrius attacks Athens, but loses part of his fleet in a storm. |
Ptolemy sends 150 ships in an attempt to break Demetrius' blockade of Athens.
|294||Demetrius captures Athens, after it is abandoned by Lachares. |
Demetrius defeats the Spartan king Archidamus near Mantineia.
Coalition of Lysimachus, Seleucus, and Ptolemaeus against Demetrius.
Demetrius murders Alexander, expels Antipater, and becomes king of Macedonia.
|293||Demetrius gains control of Thessaly and Boeotia. |
Thebes is encouraged to revolt by Cleonymus of Sparta, but is recaptured by Demetrius.
City of Demetrias founded in Magnesia
|292||Areus tries to wrest Delphi from Aetolian control but is heavily defeated|
|291||Demetrius drives Pyrrhus out of Thessaly. |
Demetrius and his son Antigonus Gonatas recapture Thebes after a second revolt.
|289||Pyrrhus defeats Pantauchus, the general of Demetrius. |
Pyrrhus invades Macedonia, but is driven out by Demetrius.
|288||Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Pyrrhus form a coalition against Demetrius. |
Demetrius' army deserts to Pyrrhus, and Demetrius loses control of Macedonia.
Lysimachus captures Amphipolis.
The partition of Macedonia between Pyrrhus and Lysimachus.
|287||Lysimachus captures Heracleia and kills the tyrants Oxathras and
Demetrius makes peace with Pyrrhus and the Athenians.
|286||Demetrius wins over Ionia and Sardis. |
Lysimachus kills Antipater, son of Cassander.
Demochares recovers Eleusis
Pyrrhus attacks Demetrius' garrisons in Thessaly.
Ptolemy seizes Tyre and Sidon both claimed by Seleucus
|285||Seleucus captures Demetrius. |
Lysimachus expels Pyrrhus from Macedonia.
Demetrius hands over control of his remaining possessions to Antigonus Gonatas.
|284||Lysimachus invades Epirus|
Lysimachus annexes Paeonia.
|282||War breaks out between Lysimachus and Seleucus. |
Antigonus captures and fortifies Munychia.
|281||Lysimachus is defeated and killed by Seleucus at the battle of
Pyrrhus regains control of Corcyra, with help from Tarentum.
Diodorus the general of Seleucus is heavily defeated.
Seleucus captures Sardis.
The assassination of Seleucus.
The Roman senate declares war on Tarentum.
The Tarentines call on Pyrrhus to protect them against the Romans; Pyrrhus is encouraged to go by an oracle from Delphi.
Pyrrhus makes an alliance with Ptolemaeus Ceraunus
|280||Pyrrhus defeats the Romans at the battle of Heracleia.|
Ptolemy Ceraunus defeats Antigonus the son of Demetrius.
The founding of the Achaean League.
Heracleia-ad-Oetam joins the Aetolian League.
1st Syrian War
Sparta takes lead in revolt from Macedonia joined by Elis, Achaea and Arcadia except Megalopolis
Boeotians and probably Euboeans assert independence.
Areus and Peloponnesians fail in attack on Aetolia with heavy loss and League dissolves.
|279||The Gauls invade Macedonia|
Ptolemaeus Ceraunus is defeated and killed by the Gauls; Meleager is made king of Macedonia.
Antipater "Etesias" replaces Meleager as king of Macedonia.
The Gauls occupy Thrace.
Sosthenes expels Antipater, and proclaims himself general of the Macedonians, but avoids the title of king.
Brennus defeats Sosthenes.
Pyrrhus defeats the Romans at Asculum, but suffers heavy losses.
The Gauls advance into Greece and reach Delphi.
War breaks out between Antiochus and Antigonus.
A combined Greek army defeats the Gauls near Delphi
The Aetolians complete the rout of the Gauls, and Brennus the king of the Gauls is killed.
|278||Apollodorus sets himself up as tyrant of Cassandreia.
Cleonymus captures Troezen from Craterus.
Peace between Antigonus Gonatas and Antiochus.
Pyrrhus leaves Italy and crosses over to Sicily.
Pyrrhus is proclaimed king of Sicily.
|277||Antigonus Gonatas defeats the Gauls near Lysimacheia. |
Antigonus Gonatas defeats Antipater and becomes king of Macedonia.
Antigonus starts to besiege Cassandreia.
Pyrrhus attacks the territory of the Carthaginians in Sicily.
Pyrrhus takes control of Acragas and thirty other cities which previously belonged to Sosistratus.
The Romans capture Croton.
Pyrrhus defeats the Mamertines.
|276||Pyrrhus attacks Lilybaeum. |
Antigonus captures Cassandreia; the death of Apollodorus.
Pyrrhus defeats the Carthaginians in a final battle.
Pyrrhus leaves Sicily and returns to Italy; he is attacked and defeated by the Carthaginian fleet en route.
|275||The Romans defeat Pyrrhus at the battle of Beneventum.
Euboeans independant of Macedonia
Antiochus defeats the Gauls in the "elephant battle".
Antiochus recovers Damascus
Ptolemy abandons his wife Arsinoe and marries his sister also called Arsinoe
|274||Pyrrhus invades Macedonia. |
Pyrrhus defeats Antigonus and wins over the Macedonian army.
Hieron is defeated by the Mamertines.
Pyrrhus captures and sacks Aegae.
Magas brother-in-law to Ptolemy at Cyrene rebels but is bought off by Ptolemy
|273||Antigonus is defeated by Ptolemaeus the son of Pyrrhus in a second battle|
|272||Areus introduces coinage to Sparta |
Cleonymus asks Pyrrhus to intervene against Sparta.
Pyrrhus attacks Sparta, but is repulsed.
King Areus crosses over from Crete, and raises the siege of Sparta.
The Spartans attack Pyrrhus while he is withdrawing to Argos and kill his son Ptolemaeus.
Pyrrhus attacks and enters Argos, but is killed, Alexander II becomes king of Epirus
Antigonus gains control of cities in the Peloponnese.
Aristotimus becomes tyrant of Elis.
|271||Antiochus makes peace
with Ptolemy, retains Damascus fbut leaves the Phoenician coast with
The birth of Aratus of Sicyon.
|270||Arsinoe II dies
Hieron II became king at Syracuse
|268||The Chremonidean War begins.|
The Aetolians annex the Aenianians and Doris.
|266||Antigonus invades Attica.|
The Romans annex Calabria and Messapia.
|265|| Antigonus Gonatas captures Megara. |
The Spartan king Areus is defeated and killed at the Isthmus
The death of Mithridates I, at the age of 84 years.
Mamertines were defeated by Hieron II at the battle of Longanus River.
|264||The First Punic War between Rome and Carthage begins.|
Ptolemy induces Alexander II of Epirus to invade Macedonia
|263||Eumenes I succeeds his uncle Philetaerus as king of Pergamon.|
Gonatas blockades Athens
Alexander is defeated by Demetrius son of Antigonus
|262||Eumenes defeats Antiochus I at Sardis. |
Pergamon, under Eumenes I, wins independence from Seleucid Empire
|261||Epirus makes peace
with Antigonus and cedes Atintania|
Athens surrenders to Antigonus.
Antigonus and Ptolemy make peace
Antigonos Gonatas establishes fortress of Antigoneia in Atintania
Alexander agree to partition of Acarnania|
death of Alexander II, king of Epirus
Acrotatus king of Sparta is killed and defeated by Aristodamus while attacking Megalopolis; Leonidas II becomes regent.
Antiochus I dies succeeded by Antiochus II
2nd Syrian War
|256||Antigonus defeats the Egyptian navy at the battle of Cos.|
the Cyclades to Antigonus Gonatas and Phoenician coast to Antiochus|
Rhodes destroyed by earthquake
|254||Aetolia absorbs Phocis|
|253||Leonidas II becomes king of Sparta.|
|252||Aristodamus of Megalopolis assasinated|
|251||The Spartans under Agis defeat the Megalopolitans but fail to take the
Aratus persuades the Sicyonians to join the Achaean League.
A combined army of Arcadians and Achaeans defeats the Spartans at Mantineia. Agis killed
|250||Bactria gains its independence from the Seleucid Empire.|
Antiochus II Theos makes peace with Ptolemy II of Egypt.
Ptolemy recovers the Cyclades
|249||An alliance between Alexander son of Craterus and the Achaean League.
Alexander acquires Corinth and Chalcis from Antigonus III Doson of Macedonia.
|246||death of Ptolemy II, king of Egypt.
death of Antiochus II and Theos, King of the Seleucid dynasty.
3rd Syrian War
Ptolemy III invades Syria.
Antigonus defeats the Egyptian fleet at Andros.
Seleucus II Callinicus becomes King of the Seleucid dynasty.
|245||Aratus is elected general of the Achaean League for the first time.
Antigonus tricks Nicaea and recaptures Corinth.
Aratus lays waste Locris and Calydonia.
The Aetolians inflict a severe defeat on the Boeotians at Chaeronea who become subordinate allies of Aetolia.
|244||Agis IV becomes king of Sparta. |
Agis wins some support for political reforms.
Antigonus forms an alliance with the Aetolian League |
Aratus overpowers Antigonus' garrison, which is commanded by Persaeus, and captures Corinth.
Aetolians aquire Elis, Mantinea, Tegea and several other Arcadian towns
Messenians accept an Aetolian protecterate
Cephallenia, Cos and Chios accept Aetolian overlordship
Aratus persuades Megara, Troezen, and Epidaurus to join the Achaean League.
The Spartan assembly discusses Agis' proposed reforms.
Seleucid fleet destroyed in a storm and army defeated.
|242||Ptolemy III is proclaimed to be leader of the Achaean League.|
Aratus invades Attica
King Leonidas II of Sparta is deposed by Agis.
|241||Agis overthrows the Spartan ephorate. |
Agis' reforms : Cancellation of debts and redistribution of land at Sparta.
Agis summoned to join Aratus at the Isthmus to prevent Aetolian invasion.
Aratus dismisses Agis and fails to prevent the Aetolians from crossing the Isthmus.
The Aetolians plunder Pellene, but are expelled by Aratus.
Ptolemy III gives Achaeans annual subsidy of 6 talents
Leonidas is recalled to Sparta.
Leonidas forces Cleombrotus, his replacement as king, to flee from Sparta.
Agis is seized by his opponents, and executed.
End of 3rd Syrian War
|240||Peace between the Aetolians,
Antigonus and the Achaeans. |
An abortive plot by Aratus against Aristomachus.
Aratus breaks a truce with the Macedonians by attacking the Piraeus.
The Aetolians devastate Laconia, and take away 50,000 captives.
The death of Aristomachus, tyrant of Argos replaced by Aristippus.
The Achaeans fine Aratus for an abortive coup at Argos.
|239||The death of Antigonus Gonatas.
Aetolians demand N Acarnania from Epirus, Alexanders widow Olympias appeals to Demetrius
Achaeans and Aetolians ally against Demetrius
|236||Demetrius detaches Boeotia and Phocis from
Aetolians and prevents their attack on Epirus|
Aratus ravages Attica but is beaten off
|235||Aratus fails in an attack on Argos. |
An indecisive battle between Aratus and Aristippus.
Aratus kills and defeats Aristippus at Cleonae.
Lydiadas of Megalopolis abdicates tyranny and incorporates city in Achaean League
The death of Leonidas II, and accession of Cleomenes III as king of Sparta.
|234||Demetrius invades Boeotia, and detaches it from Aetolia.|
|233||Aratus invades Attica.
Demetrius invades Arcadia from Argolis and defeat Aratus at Phylacia
Dardanians invade Macedonia and defeat and kill Demetrius
|232||Lydiades is elected general of the Achaean League for the second time.|
Aetolians overrun Achaea Phthiotis and Thessaly
|231||Revolution in Epirus monarchy overthrown,
renounces claim on northern Acarnania|
Acarnanians reconstitute themselves into an independent state and appeal to Demetrius
who refers them to Agron of Illyria
Agron defeats Aetolian invasion of Acarnania
|230||Illyrians plunder Epirot capital of
Epirots cede Atintania to Illyria, Acarnanians submit to Illyria
|229||Illyrians seize Corcyra|
Roman fleet end Illyrian expansion
Cleomenes seizes Belmina, on the border with Megalopolis.
The Aetolians invade western Thessaly.
The Aeginetans and Arcadians join the Achaean League.
Aristomachus of Argos joins the Achaean League.
The Macedonian garrison is persuaded to abandon the Piraeus for 150 talents.
Aratus unsuccessfully offers Athenians money to join Achaean League
|228||The Achaean League declares war on Sparta. |
Aristomachus is elected general of the Achaean League.
Antigonus drives the Aetolians out of Thessaly.
The Spartan ephors recall Cleomenes from Arcadia.
Cleomenes vastly outnumbered confronts the Achaean army at Pallantium, but Aratus prevents Aristomachus from joining battle.
|227||Aratus is elected general for the tenth time.
Ptolemy III switches his subsidy to Cleomenes
Cleomenes defeats Aratus in a battle by Mt. Lycaeum.
Aratus seizes Mantineia.
Cleomenes kills his opponent Archidamus.
Antigonus Doson officially assumes the title of king of Macedonia.
Doson raids Caria taking some coastal towns inc Miletus
Cleomenes defeats the Achaeans at Ladoceia, where Lydiades is killed.
Cleomenes abolishes the ephorate and replaces Archidamos brother of Agis with his own brother
Cleomenes reforms the Spartan constitution, cancels debts, puts into effect Agis land redistribution enfranchising 4000 Perioeci and attempts to re-impose more frugal habits.
The Achaeans blame Aratus for the death of Lydiades, and deny him access to public funds.
Cleomenes invades the territory of Megalopolis.
|226||The Megalopolitans send an embassy to Antigonus, with the consent of
Antigonus abandons his gains in Caria due to offer of alliance from Aratus
The council of the Achaean League decides against an alliance with Antigonus, because it would involve the surrender of Corinth.
Cleomenes captures Mantineia.
Cleomenes heavily defeats the Achaeans at the battle of Hecatombaeum.
Achaeans sue for peace Cleomenes offers easy terms
|225||The Achaeans negotiate with Cleomenes, and offer him the leadership of
the Achaean League. Ratification delayed by Cleomenes illness|
Aratus causes the breakdown of the negotiations between the Achaeans and Cleomenes.
Timoxenus is elected general of the Achaean League.
Argos deserts the Achaeans and join Cleomenes, along with Caphyae, Pellene, Pheneus, Phlius, Cleonae, Epidaurus, Hermione, and Troezen.
The inhabitants of Corinth transfer their allegiance to Cleomenes.
The Achaeans, led by Aratus, appeal to Antigonus for help against Cleomenes.
|224||Cleomenes invades the territory of Sicyon. |
The Achaeans come to an agreement with Antigonus, after promising to hand over Corinth to him.
Antigonus renews alliance with Boeotia and advances to the Isthmus of Corinth.
The Achaeans encourage Argos to revolt against Cleomenes, which forces him to retreat from the Isthmus.
Aristomachus of Argos is captured by the Achaeans and put to death.
Cleomenes sends his mother as a hostage to Egypt.
Antigonus captures some forts belonging to Cleomenes, near Aegys and Belmina in Arcadia.
Antigonus attends the Council of the Achaean League at Aegium, and is appointed commander-in-chief of the Hellenic league of Greek states
Argos defects from Cleomenes who abandons Corinth
|223||Antigonus captures Tegea. |
Cleomenes enters Megalopolis in a surprise attack, but is forced out again.
Antigonus captures Orchomenus.
Antigonus captures Mantineia, Heraea and Thelpusa.
Cleomenes raises extra troops by freeing helots, and captures Megalopolis.
Antigonus attends an Achaean assembly at Aegium.
The Achaeans destroy and refound Mantineia as "Antigoneia".
Cleomenes devastates the countryside around Argos, without meeting any resistance.
Cleomenes leads a second raid against Argos.
King Ptolemy withdraws his subsidy to Cleomenes.
Antigonus enters Laconia and encamps opposite Cleomenes at Sellasia.
Antigonus defeats Cleomenes at Sellasia.
Antigonus enters Sparta.
The Macedonians recall Antigonus because of an Illyrian invasion.
Cleomenes takes refuge in Alexandria, where Ptolemy gives him a state pension.
A massacre at Argos, after the departure of Antigonus.
|221||Antigonus defeats an invading Illyrian army. |
The death of Antigonus Doson, who is succeeded by Philip V.
|220||Aetolian acts of aggression in Epirus, Acarnania, and the Peloponnese.
Timoxenus, the general of the Achaean League, captures Clarium, a fort near Megalopolis which had been occupied by the Aetolians.
The Aetolians raid Messenia
The Achaean assembly declares war on the Aetolians.
Aratus becomes general of the Achaean League.
The Aetolians defeat Aratus and the Achaeans at Caphyae.
The Aetolians capture Cynaetha.
The Aetolian army leaves the Peloponnese.
The murder of Adeimantus, a pro-Macedonian Spartan ephor.
The ephors are murdered during unrest at Sparta.
|219||Ptolemy puts Cleomenes under house arrest, at the instigation of
Cleomenes is killed while attempting to escape.
Lycurgus is appointed king of Sparta.
Messene joins Hellenic League
Hellenic League declares war on Aetolia
The Spartans and Eleans declare war on the Achaean League.
Aratus, the son of Aratus, becomes General of the Achaean League.
Aetolian raids on Aegeira and Dyme.
The Aetolians sack Dium in Lower Macedonia and Dodona in Epirus
Philip defeats the Aetolian general Euripidas and the Eleans near Stymphalus.
4th Syrian War
|218||Philip captures Psophis, an Elean stronghold. |
Philip invades Elis.
Philip protects the Achaeans from maltreatment by Apelles.
Apelles secures the election of Eperatus of Pharae as general of the Achaean League.
Philip invades Elis again.
Philip and Aratus are reconciled at the assembly of the Achaean League.
Philip sails to Limnaea
Philip sacks Thermum, an Aetolian city.
Philip invades Laconia.
Philip puts Leontius and Apelles to death on suspicion of treason.
Lycurgus leaves Sparta for Aetolia, out of fear of the ephors.
|217||The incompetence of the Achaean general Eperatus allows Pyrrhias to lead
an Aetolian raid into Achaea.|
Aratus becomes general of the Achaean League.
Lycurgus returns to Sparta and invades Messenia.
Aratus puts an end to civil dissension at Megalopolis.
Lycus of Pharae defeats the Aetolians near Leontium.
The Eleans and Aetolians make raids into their opponents' territory.
An unsuccessful attack by Philip on Melitaea.
Philip recaptures Byalazora from the Dardanians
Philip captures Thebae in Phthiotis.
Aratus fails in an attack on Cynaetha.
Peace terms are agreed at Naupactus between the Aetolians and Philip and his allies; the end of the Social War.
Agelaus becomes general of the Aetolian League.
Philip subdues Triphylia.
An attempted coup by Chilon at Sparta.
|216||Lycurgus expels Agesipolis from Sparta.|
|215||Philip offers alliance to Hannibal|
|214||start of the First Macedonian War.|
|213||The death of Aratus.|
|211||The Aetolians enter into an alliance with the Romans, along with Attalus of Pergamum.|
|210||The Spartans Messenians and Eleans become allies of the Aetolians|
|209||Philip invades Elis.|
|208||Philopoemon is elected general of the Achaean League for the first time|
|207||The Achaeans defeat and kill Machanidas of Sparta at battle of Mantineia.
Nabis becomes regent in Sparta
|205||end of the First Macedonian War.|
|202||The Fifth Syrian War (202–200?) saw the defeat of Ptolemy at Panium (200). He retained only Cyprus of his Asiatic possessions. When he came of age (195), he succeeded in suppressing the native revolts.|
|201||Philip invades Attica. |
Nabis of Sparta attacks Messene.
Philip attacks Pergamum.
The fleets of Pergamum and Rhodes are defeated by the Macedonians at Lade, but win another battle at Chios.
|200||Athens declares war on Philip|
Philopoemon leads an expedition against Nabis.
The Roman people declare war on Philip; the start of the Second Macedonian War.
Philip captures Abydus.
Philip invades Attica.
|199||The death of Pelops, king of Sparta. Nabis becomes king.|
Nabis enfranchises helots and mercenaries.
The Aetolians invade Thessaly.
|198||The Roman fleet attacks Euboea. |
The Romans invade Thessaly.
The assembly of the Achaean League decides to abandon its alliance with Philip and to support the Romans
The Macedonians gain control of Argos.
|197||Philip allows Nabis to take possession of Argos. |
Flamininus forces the Boeotians to enter into alliance with the Romans.
L.Flamininus defeats the Acarnanians at Leucas.
Flamininus defeats Philip at the battle of Cynoscephalae.
The Achaeans defeats Philip's general Androsthenes near Corinth.
Flamininus agrees peace terms with Philip
the end of the Second Macedonian War.
|195||Flamininus advances to Argos. |
Flamininus invades Laconia with an army 50,000 strong.
Nabis is forced to come to terms with the Romans.
Sparta to cede Argos and Maritime towns to Achaean league and withdraw from some Cretan cities
|193||Nabis defeats Philopoemon in naval battle recovers Gytheum|
Philopoemon invades Laconia and defeats Nabis.
|192||Nabis is assassinated by Aetolians at Sparta. |
1000 Aetolian troops massacred in reprisal
Philopoemon enters Sparta
Sparta is forced to join Achaean League, restore Belminatis to Megalopolis and destroy walls
|191||The Aetolians declared war on Rome and secured the
support of Antiochus III with a small force. The Achaeans and Philip
supported Rome. The Romans drove Antiochus back to Asia in the Battle of
Thermopylae (191), and the Aetolians were finally made subject allies of
Rome by M. Fulvius Nobilior (189).|
WAR WITH ROME broke out when Antiochus crossed to Greece to aid the Aetolians and the Romans declared war. The forces of Antiochus were driven from Greece (191) and his fleet was defeated at Myonnesus (190). The Roman army entered Asia Minor and defeated Antiochus himself at Magnesia (190). In the peace of Apamea (188), Antiochus paid a large indemnity, lost his fleet, and surrendered Asia Minor, which was divided between Rhodes and Pergamum. This defeat led to the complete breaking away of Armenia (under Artaxias) and of Bactria.
|187||Seleucus IV Philopater (“loving his father”) succeeded Antiochus III, and during his reign the empire gradually recovered strength. Meanwhile Eumenes II of Pergamum successfully fought against Prusias I of Bithynia (187–183) and Pharnaces I of Pontus (183–179).|
|183||Philopoemen lost his life in suppressing a revolt in Messenia (183). His successor in the Achaean League, Callicrates, was subservient to Rome and allowed Sparta to have autonomy|
|181||Ptolemy VI Philometor (“loving his mother”) followed Ptolemy V under the regency of his mother Cleopatra I. In consequence of Ptolemy's cowardice during the Sixth Syrian War with Antiochus IV (170–168), the people of Alexandria forced him to associate his brother, Ptolemy VII, in his rule. Rome prevented Antiochus from completing his victory over Egypt (168). When Ptolemy VI was expelled by his brother (164), the Roman Senate restored him and gave Cyrene and Cyprus to Ptolemy VII, who, however, secured only Cyrene (163). Ptolemy supported Alexander Balas against Demetrius I (153–150) but then switched his support from Alexander to Demetrius II. Ptolemy and Alexander Balas were killed in this war (147–45).|
|179||Perseus became king of Macedon on the death of his father Philip V. He had already persuaded Philip to execute his pro-Roman brother Demetrius, and now Eumenes II of Pergamum laid charges against him at Rome.|
|175||Antiochus IV Epiphanes (“god manifest”) succeeded upon the murder of his brother Seleucus. Though friendly to Rome, he was prevented by the Romans from concluding successfully the Sixth Syrian War against Egypt (170–168). The Romans also weakened Rhodes by making Delos a free port (167).|
|171||In the THIRD MACEDONIAN WAR Perseus was crushed by Aemilius Paullus at Pydna (168). He later died in captivity in Italy, and the Antigonids came to an end. Rome made Macedon into four unrelated republics, paying a moderate yearly tribute (167). In Aetolia, 500 anti-Romans were slain. One thousand hostages, including the historian Polybius, were taken from Achaea to Italy.|
|168||Dissent between Hellenized and observant Jews caused violence in Jerusalem that Antiochus suppressed with force and repression. Led by Judas Maccabeus, the Jews began a successful guerrilla war (168). A large Seleucid army forced negotiations, and, as a result, the temple fortifications were dismantled and Jewish religious freedom was restored (163).|
|162||Demetrius I Soter, son of Seleucus IV, returned from Rome and executed Antiochus but was himself defeated and killed in 150 by a pretender, Alexander Balas (150–145). In 145 Alexander was defeated by the son of Demetrius I who ruled as Demetrius II Nicator.|
|149||The FOURTH MACEDONIAN WAR was begun by Andriscus, who pretended to be a son of Perseus. On his defeat, Macedon became a Roman province (148).|
|146||When the Achaean hostages had returned (151) and Callicrates had died (149), the Achaean League attacked Sparta but was crushed by the Roman general Mummius (146). The Roman Senate ordered Mummius to abolish the leagues, substitute oligarchies for all democracies, destroy Corinth, and place Greece under the supervision of the governor of Macedon. This marked the end of Greek and Macedonian independence, though some Greek states retained autonomy for a long time.|
|145||Demetrius II Nicator. Demetrius was challenged by several usurpers. In 142 Demetrius made an alliance with Simon Maccabeus who established an independent Jewish state under the Hasmonean dynasty. His successors—John Hyrcanus (134–104), Judah-Aristobulus (104–103), and Alexander Jannaeus (102–76)—took advantage of the weakness of Seleucid rulers to extend the power of the Jewish state. Meanwhile in 139 Demetrius was captured by Mithridates I of Parthia and was succeeded by his younger brother, Antiochus VII Euergetes Eusebes Soter Sidetes.|